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Prolog for natural language processing

  • July 11, 2010 2:29 pm

Chapter 3: The Linguistic Background

3.6 Functional Grammar and unification

This section is a good introduction to the functional structures research, and the last paragraph serves as a brief survey on this field.

Survey on Semantic Role Annotation

  • July 6, 2010 10:39 pm

Syntatic Structure

  • July 6, 2010 10:20 pm

One of the difficulties involved in defining sentence functions semantically is that there seems to be no one-to-one correspondence between semantic role and syntactic function.

The same category may realize different functions and the same function may be realized by different categories. What makes the relation between function and realization so complicated is the almost complete absence in English of a one-to-one correspondence between them.

In fact, such a one-to-one correspondence exists only between the function predicator and the verb phrase.


Chapter 7 & Chapter 8 are very useful!

Grammatical Functions

  • July 5, 2010 2:23 pm

From:http://www.linguisticsgirl.com/grammatical-functions/

Grammatical Functions

The article The Form-Function Method for Teaching Grammar: Learning English Grammar by Studying Grammatical Form and Function explains the pedagogical method of teaching English grammar by distinguishing grammatical form from grammatical function.

Subject

The article The Grammatical Subject in English: Nouns, Prepositional Phrases, Verbs, and Noun Clauses as Subjects explains and provides examples of the four grammatical forms that can function as the subject in English grammar.

The linguistic term of grammatical subject is defined in the blog post Linguistic Definition of Grammatical Subject.

Predicate

The article Learning Word Order in English by Studying the Forms of the English Predicate lists and provides examples of the six constructions of the predicate in English grammar.

The article Constructions of the English Predicate: What Can the Predicate Look Like in the English Language? describes the six main forms of the predicate in English grammar.

Subject Complement

The article The Grammatical Subject Complement in English: The Five Words, Phrases, and Clauses that Describe the Subject identifies and provides examples of the five grammatical forms that can function as the subject complement in English grammar.

The article How to Teach ESL Students the Difference between Subject Complements and Direct Objects outlines a lesson plan for teaching the five grammatical forms that can function as the subject complement in English grammar.

Direct Object

The article The Grammatical Direct Object in English: Nouns, Prepositions, Verbs, and Noun Clauses as Direct Objects identifies and describes the four grammatical forms that can function as the direct object in English grammar.

The article How to Teach ESL Students the Difference between Subject Complements and Direct Objects outlines a lesson plan for teaching the four grammatical forms that can function as the direct object in English grammar.

Object Complement

The article The Grammatical Object Complement in English: Five Words, Phrases, and Clauses that Describe the Direct Object identifies and provides examples of the five grammatical forms that can function as the object complement in English grammar.

Indirect Object

The article The Grammatical Indirect Object in English: Nouns, Prepositions, Verbs, and Noun Clauses as Indirect Objects identifies and describes the four grammatical forms that can function as the indirect object in English grammar.

Prepositional Complement

The article Grammatical Prepositional Complement in English: Four Grammatical Forms that Function as the Object of a Preposition describes the four grammatical forms that can function as the prepositional complement in English grammar.

Noun Phrase Modifier

The article The Grammatical Noun Phrase Modifier in English: Describing with Nouns, Adjectives, Prepositions, Verbs, and Clauses identifies and describes the five grammatical forms that can function as the noun phrase modifier in English grammar.

Adverbial

The article The Grammatical Adverbial in English: Words, Phrases, and Clauses that Modify or Describe an Entire Clause describes the five grammatical forms that can function as the adverbial in English grammar.

Adjunct

The article The Grammatical Adjunct in English: Framing an Entire Clause with Adverbs and Prepositional Phrases describes the two grammatical forms that can function as the adjunct in English grammar.

Determinative

The article The Grammatical Determinative in English: Articles, Demonstratives, Possessive Adjectives, Other Determiners lists and explains the six types of determiners that can function as the determinative in English grammar.


syntax and grammar

  • July 5, 2010 2:06 pm

a. Syntactic categories: N, A, V, P, NP, VP, AP, . . .
b. Grammatical functions: SUBJ (Subject), OBJ (Object), MOD (Modifier), PRED (Predicate) , . . .


Syntactic categories:

  1. Noun
  2. Adjective
  3. Determiner
  4. Verb
  5. Adverb
  6. Preposition
  7. Conjunction
  8. Interjection

Grammatical Functions

  1. Subject
  2. Predicate
  3. Direct Object
  4. Indirect Object
  5. Subject Complement (Predicate Nominative and Predicate Adjective)
  6. Object Complement
  7. Prepositional Complement
  8. Noun Phrase Modifier
  9. Noun Phrase Complement
  10. Possessive Modifier
  11. Possessive Modifier Complement
  12. Appositive
  13. Adjective Phrase Modifier
  14. Adjective Phrase Complement
  15. Verb Phrase Modifier
  16. Verb Phrase Complement
  17. Progressive
  18. Perfect
  19. Passive
  20. Modal
  21. Operator
  22. Adverb Phrase Modifier
  23. Adverbial
  24. Adjunct
  25. Determinative
  26. Particle
  27. Infinitive Marker
  28. Coordinator
  29. Subordinator
  30. Correlator
  31. Interjector

linguistic resource

  • July 5, 2010 12:28 am

http://people.ucalgary.ca/~mcginnis/301/f04/syllabus.html

Syntax

  • July 4, 2010 11:35 pm

Syntax

By Misty Wilson

Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 1998

The word “syntax” refers to the relationships of words within a sentence. 
In English, speakers and writers generally indicate these relationships
through word order.  For example, the actor–or “subject”–in a sentence
generally comes before the verb.  Recipients of actions–or “objects”–generally
appear after verbs.  English syntax actually is much more complex
than these examples suggest, but they illustrate a general principle: syntax

is the system that speakers and writers use when they combine words into
phrases and clauses, ultimately creating meaning.

In their book Understanding English Grammar Martha Kolln and
Robert Funk identify ten basic sentence patterns in English syntax. 
The first step in learning these sentence patterns is identifying two basic
parts of a sentence: the subject and the predicate.  The subject
consists of a noun phrase, which
includes a noun headword, along with its modifiers; this subject, which
usually appears somewhere before the verb in a sentence, generally is someone
or something performing an action.  The predicate

contains a verb phrase generally referring to an action performed by the
subject.  This verb phrase is
made up of the predicating verb, or main verb, along with its modifiers
and complements.  Take, for example, the following sentence:

The diligent students worked on their assignment today.

Here, the noun phrase “the diligent students” is the subject, and “worked
on their assignment today” is the predicate.

It is helpful to think of a sentence as a series of slots.  Each
of the ten basic patterns begins with a noun phrase in the subject slot,
followed by one, two, or three slots in the predicate.  Below are
detailed descriptions and examples of each basic pattern described by Funk
and Kolln.

Patterns 1-3 (Be Patterns)

The first three patterns are the be patterns.  The number
of slots in the predicate is two.  The first slot contains the main,
or predicating verb, which is a form of be.  Some examples
of forms of be are is, am, are, was, were, being, and been

Expanded forms include have been, was being, might be, and will
be
.  What follows the main verb in the final slot determines which
pattern the sentence is.  In Pattern 1, an adverbial of time or place
follows the main verb.  In both Pattern 2 and Pattern 3, the predicating
verb is followed by a subject
complement
: a noun phrase or adjectival that renames or modifies the
subject.

An adjectival follows it in Pattern 2, and in Pattern 3 a noun phrase
follows the main verb.

* The numbers in parentheses in some of the patterns show the relationships
between noun phrases.  If the numbers are identical, the noun phrases
have the same referent (what the noun
phrase stands for).  Different numbers denote different referents.

 

1.    NP

      (subject) 

      The team
be

(predicating verb) 

is

ADV/TP

(adverbial of time or place) 

outside
2.   NP

      (subject) 

      The team

be

(predicating verb) 

is
ADJ

(subject complement) 

good

3.  NP(1)

       (subject) 

       That team
be

(predicating verb) 

is
NP(1)

(subject complement) 

the Raiders

Patterns 4 and 5 (Linking Verb Patterns)

Patterns 4 and 5 contain two slots in the predicate, just as in Patterns
1-3.  These patterns contain a linking verb followed by a subject
complement.  The difference between the two is the type of phrase
that fills the subject complement slot.  In Pattern 4, an adjectival
fills this slot.  In Pattern 5, a noun phrase fills the subject complement
slot; the noun phrase has the same referent as the first noun phrase.

Linking verbs that commonly appear in Pattern IV are verbs of the senses
such as taste, smell, feel, sound, and look.  Others
include

turn, appear, become, get, remain, and prove.  Some
of these verbs also are used in Pattern 5.

 

4.   NP

        (subject) 

        The child
linking verb

(predicating evrb) 

seems
ADJ

(subject complement) 

honest
5.    NP(1)

       (subject) 

       The children
linking verb

(predicating verb) 

became

NP(1)

(subject complement) 

foster kids

Pattern 6 (Intransitive Verb Pattern)

No complement follows the verb in this pattern; however, the verb may
be followed by adverbial information answering questions such as the following:
When? Where? Why? How? How long?

 

6.   NP

       (subject) 

       The club members
intransitive verb

(predicating verb) 

arrived

Patterns 7-10 (Transitive Verb Patterns)

The four transitive verb patterns have one thing in common: each contains
direct object–a noun phrase
that often refers to the object of a verb’s action.   Pattern
7 is considered the basic transitive pattern and contains only a direct
object following the verb.  Pattern 8 differs a little in that an
indirect object precedes the direct object.  We usually think of the indirect
object
as the recipient and the direct object as the thing given. 

One way to distinguish between Patterns 9 and 10 is to identify the object
complement
–the noun phrase or adjectival describing or renaming the
direct object.  In Pattern IX, the object complement that follows
the direct object is an adjective that modifies the direct object. 
The object complement in Pattern 10 is a noun phrase.  In this pattern,
the noun phrase has the same referent as the direct object.

 

7.   NP(1)

      (subject) 

      The woman

transitive verb

(predicating verb) 

passed
NP(2)

(direct object) 

the test
8.  NP(1)

     (subject) 

     The players
transitive verb

(predicating verb) 

gave

NP(2)

(indirect object) 

the other team
NP(3)

(direct object) 

the ball
9.     NP(1)

        (subject) 

        The members
transitive verb

(predicating verb) 

find

NP(2)

(direct object)

the club
ADJ

(object complement) 

interesting
10.     NP(1)

          (subject) 

          She
transitive verb

(predicating verb) 

considers

NP(2)

(direct object) 

her teacher
NP(2)

(object complement) 

a genius

english basic patterns

  • July 4, 2010 11:13 pm

http://free-english-study.com/grammar/basic-sentence-structure.html

There are five basic patterns around which most English sentences are built.* They are
as follows:

S-V

Subject-Verb

John sleeps.

Jill is eating.

Jack will arrive next week.

S-V-O

Subject-Verb-Object

I like rice.

She loves her job.

He’s eating an orange.

S-V-Adj

Subject-Verb-Adjective

He is funny.

The workers are lazy.

Karen seems angry.

S-V-Adv

Subject-Verb-Adverb

Jim is here.

Flowers are everywhere.

No one was there.

S-V-N

Subject-Verb-Noun

She is my mom.

The men are doctors.

Mr. Jones is the teacher.


生成规则

  • July 4, 2010 10:29 pm
  • 规则1:一个VB对应一个prediate;但是predicate数量可能多于VB数量
  • 规则2:predicate所带两个参数,在原句子中,一个位于谓词前(在parse tree的上层),一个位于谓词后面(下层)
  • 规则3:定义--VBZ(且为are is)带NP是定义标志之一
  • 规则4: VBP 直接带PP,如果PP下第一个是IN,那么 VBP IN 能合成一个predicate
  • 规则5:名词性从句、定语从句、或同位语、定语,本身都是一个fact,起到修饰先前主语用,和主要的fact的关系为and关系,用来限定; 同位语,定语的predicate就是那个介词
  • 规则6: 状语从句,都可用prolog的:-来表示,或者是lisp的implies

Common Logic Controlled English

  • July 4, 2010 1:51 am

http://www.jfsowa.com/clce/specs.htm

Common Logic Controlled English

by sowa

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