Brainmaker

Nanos gigantium humeris insidentes!

Reading Plan

  • July 6, 2010 5:46 pm

Syntax:

  • An introduction to English sentence structure / Andrew Radford
    • As a reference
  • English syntactic structures : functions and categories in sentence analysis / Flor Aarts and Jan Aar
    • Part II: Structure

Verb Syntax:

  • An empirical grammar of the English verb system / Dieter Mindt
    • The verb system
  • The grammar of English predicate complement constructions [by] Peter S. Rosenbaum       PE1380 .R6 c.2
    • The complement for predicate

Logic & Predicate

  • The semantic foundations of logic / Richard L. Epstein V.1       BC71 .E57 1994
  • Subject and predicate in logic and grammar / P.F. Strawson       B1667.S383 S83 2004


Book Record

  • July 6, 2010 1:52 pm

NLP:

  • Natural language understanding
    • James Allen  QA76.7 .A44 1995
    • status: reading
    • comment: good for NLP
  • Principles of semantic networks : explorations in the representation of knowledge
    • contributors, Ale Q335 .P74 1991x
    • status: reading, almost finish
    • comment: Good start for knowledge representation
  • Graph-based knowledge representation [electronic resource] : computational foundations of conceptual
    • online c2009
    • status:reading
    • comment: Detail for Semantic Networks

  • Semantic networks in artificial intelligence
    • status:
    • edited by Fritz Lehmann ; general editor Ervin Y. Rodi Q335 .S423 1992x
  • Conceptual graphs for knowledge representation : First International Conference on Conceptual Struct
    • Q387 .I58 1993x
  • Knowledge representation : an AI perspective
    • Han Reichgelt  Q387 .R45 1991


English Language:

Syntax:

  • An introduction to English sentence structure / Andrew Radford
  • English syntactic structures : functions and categories in sentence analysis / Flor Aarts and Jan Aar **********

Verb Syntax:

  • An empirical grammar of the English verb system / Dieter Mindt
  • The grammar of English predicate complement constructions [by] Peter S. Rosenbaum       PE1380 .R6 c.2

Logic & Predicate

  • The semantic foundations of logic / Richard L. Epstein V.1       BC71 .E57 1994
  • Subject and predicate in logic and grammar / P.F. Strawson       B1667.S383 S83 2004



POS tags

  • July 5, 2010 10:25 pm

http://bioie.ldc.upenn.edu/wiki/index.php/POS_tags

CC 并列连词
CD 数字
DT 限定词
EX there
FW 保留的外文
IN 介词、连词
JJ 形容词
JJR 比较级形容词
JJS 最高级形容词
LS 序数词
MD 情态动词
NN 单数名词
NNP 单数专有名词
NNPS 复数专有名词
NNS 复数名词
PDT 限定词(如half the,all the)
POS 所有格
PRP 人称代词
PRPS 所有格代词
RB 副词
RBR 比较级副词
RBS 最高级副词
RP 分词
SYM 各种符号,如&
TO to
UH 感叹词
VB 动词
VBD 动词过去式形式
VBG 动词现在分词形式
VBN 动词过去分词形式
VBP 主语是第1、2人称复数
VBZ 主语是第1人称单数
WDT 以wh开头的限定词
WP 以wh开头的代词
WPS 以wh开头的所有个代词
WRB 以wh开头的副词

Grammatical Functions

  • July 5, 2010 2:23 pm

From:http://www.linguisticsgirl.com/grammatical-functions/

Grammatical Functions

The article The Form-Function Method for Teaching Grammar: Learning English Grammar by Studying Grammatical Form and Function explains the pedagogical method of teaching English grammar by distinguishing grammatical form from grammatical function.

Subject

The article The Grammatical Subject in English: Nouns, Prepositional Phrases, Verbs, and Noun Clauses as Subjects explains and provides examples of the four grammatical forms that can function as the subject in English grammar.

The linguistic term of grammatical subject is defined in the blog post Linguistic Definition of Grammatical Subject.

Predicate

The article Learning Word Order in English by Studying the Forms of the English Predicate lists and provides examples of the six constructions of the predicate in English grammar.

The article Constructions of the English Predicate: What Can the Predicate Look Like in the English Language? describes the six main forms of the predicate in English grammar.

Subject Complement

The article The Grammatical Subject Complement in English: The Five Words, Phrases, and Clauses that Describe the Subject identifies and provides examples of the five grammatical forms that can function as the subject complement in English grammar.

The article How to Teach ESL Students the Difference between Subject Complements and Direct Objects outlines a lesson plan for teaching the five grammatical forms that can function as the subject complement in English grammar.

Direct Object

The article The Grammatical Direct Object in English: Nouns, Prepositions, Verbs, and Noun Clauses as Direct Objects identifies and describes the four grammatical forms that can function as the direct object in English grammar.

The article How to Teach ESL Students the Difference between Subject Complements and Direct Objects outlines a lesson plan for teaching the four grammatical forms that can function as the direct object in English grammar.

Object Complement

The article The Grammatical Object Complement in English: Five Words, Phrases, and Clauses that Describe the Direct Object identifies and provides examples of the five grammatical forms that can function as the object complement in English grammar.

Indirect Object

The article The Grammatical Indirect Object in English: Nouns, Prepositions, Verbs, and Noun Clauses as Indirect Objects identifies and describes the four grammatical forms that can function as the indirect object in English grammar.

Prepositional Complement

The article Grammatical Prepositional Complement in English: Four Grammatical Forms that Function as the Object of a Preposition describes the four grammatical forms that can function as the prepositional complement in English grammar.

Noun Phrase Modifier

The article The Grammatical Noun Phrase Modifier in English: Describing with Nouns, Adjectives, Prepositions, Verbs, and Clauses identifies and describes the five grammatical forms that can function as the noun phrase modifier in English grammar.

Adverbial

The article The Grammatical Adverbial in English: Words, Phrases, and Clauses that Modify or Describe an Entire Clause describes the five grammatical forms that can function as the adverbial in English grammar.

Adjunct

The article The Grammatical Adjunct in English: Framing an Entire Clause with Adverbs and Prepositional Phrases describes the two grammatical forms that can function as the adjunct in English grammar.

Determinative

The article The Grammatical Determinative in English: Articles, Demonstratives, Possessive Adjectives, Other Determiners lists and explains the six types of determiners that can function as the determinative in English grammar.


syntax and grammar

  • July 5, 2010 2:06 pm

a. Syntactic categories: N, A, V, P, NP, VP, AP, . . .
b. Grammatical functions: SUBJ (Subject), OBJ (Object), MOD (Modifier), PRED (Predicate) , . . .


Syntactic categories:

  1. Noun
  2. Adjective
  3. Determiner
  4. Verb
  5. Adverb
  6. Preposition
  7. Conjunction
  8. Interjection

Grammatical Functions

  1. Subject
  2. Predicate
  3. Direct Object
  4. Indirect Object
  5. Subject Complement (Predicate Nominative and Predicate Adjective)
  6. Object Complement
  7. Prepositional Complement
  8. Noun Phrase Modifier
  9. Noun Phrase Complement
  10. Possessive Modifier
  11. Possessive Modifier Complement
  12. Appositive
  13. Adjective Phrase Modifier
  14. Adjective Phrase Complement
  15. Verb Phrase Modifier
  16. Verb Phrase Complement
  17. Progressive
  18. Perfect
  19. Passive
  20. Modal
  21. Operator
  22. Adverb Phrase Modifier
  23. Adverbial
  24. Adjunct
  25. Determinative
  26. Particle
  27. Infinitive Marker
  28. Coordinator
  29. Subordinator
  30. Correlator
  31. Interjector

problems-updated to 7-5

  • July 5, 2010 1:39 am

Updated on 7/5

问题:

  1. 归纳谓词的各种synatic categories

——————————————————-

Updated on 7/5 morning

回答先前问题

项目陈述:Build a knowledge base, represent wikipedia as Cyc-like base

问题陈述:

  1. 如何定义termlogical language and facts
    1. 如何处理复杂句:按照已归纳的rule处理
    2. parsing tree 能划分句子成分吗
    3. 划分后如何处理成FOL:按照parser tree来syntax来分
    4. FOL如何转化成CG:暂不做该步
  2. 如何建立rule and inference method:rule与fact同时由wiki生成

新问题陈述:

现在的方案是:

  1. 分析出指代结构,然后将一篇文章按句号拆成句子
  2. 用parser tree分析出每句的成分
  3. 预选依据English Syntax,生成所有的句法对应的一阶逻辑语句
  4. 用3的规则去生成2中句子的对应fact和rule

两个要务

  1. 指代结构
  2. English Syntax 生成一阶

问题2方案

  1. 参考A synopsis of English Syntax by Eugene A. Nida, 拆出所有句型
  2. 所有句型对应的一阶逻辑
  3. 写出能用于编程的规则


---------

7/1

回答先前问题:

  • 是否需要处理成简单句,是否有可能处理成简单句
  • 如何画分出句子成分
    • parsing tree 可以,但不是自己要的
  • 如何去除不重要的句子成份
  • 是用语义网还是谓词逻辑;应该用一阶逻辑还是二阶逻辑,哪个的描述能力足够;如果是二阶逻辑的话,其演绎系统完善、切实可行否
    • CGs and FOL are equivalent
    • 当前转化成一阶逻辑的技术都不成熟
  • 文章所在的分类是micro-theory,文章名称是constant,知识集本身就是常识

修改问题:

7.1 问题陈述

项目陈述:Build a knowledge base, represent wikipedia as Cyc-like base

问题陈述:

  1. 如何定义termlogical language and facts
    1. 如何处理复杂句
    2. parsing tree 能划分句子成分吗
    3. 划分后如何处理成FOL
    4. FOL如何转化成CG
  2. 如何建立rule and inference method

方案:

先处理问题1中的2和3

1.2:参考 natural language understanding的书

1.3:参考Sowa 的CG原作,继续查找关于把natural language 转化成FOL的书

—————————————————–

6.30

项目陈述:把wikipedia转化成一个类似Cyc的结构化知识库

问题陈述

  • 是否需要处理成简单句,是否有可能处理成简单句
  • 如何画分出句子成分
  • 如何去除不重要的句子成份
  • 是用语义网还是谓词逻辑;应该用一阶逻辑还是二阶逻辑,哪个的描述能力足够;如果是二阶逻辑的话,其演绎系统完善、切实可行否
  • 文章所在的分类是micro-theory,文章名称是constant,知识集本身就是常识

linguistic resource

  • July 5, 2010 12:28 am

http://people.ucalgary.ca/~mcginnis/301/f04/syllabus.html

Syntax

  • July 4, 2010 11:35 pm

Syntax

By Misty Wilson

Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 1998

The word “syntax” refers to the relationships of words within a sentence. 
In English, speakers and writers generally indicate these relationships
through word order.  For example, the actor–or “subject”–in a sentence
generally comes before the verb.  Recipients of actions–or “objects”–generally
appear after verbs.  English syntax actually is much more complex
than these examples suggest, but they illustrate a general principle: syntax

is the system that speakers and writers use when they combine words into
phrases and clauses, ultimately creating meaning.

In their book Understanding English Grammar Martha Kolln and
Robert Funk identify ten basic sentence patterns in English syntax. 
The first step in learning these sentence patterns is identifying two basic
parts of a sentence: the subject and the predicate.  The subject
consists of a noun phrase, which
includes a noun headword, along with its modifiers; this subject, which
usually appears somewhere before the verb in a sentence, generally is someone
or something performing an action.  The predicate

contains a verb phrase generally referring to an action performed by the
subject.  This verb phrase is
made up of the predicating verb, or main verb, along with its modifiers
and complements.  Take, for example, the following sentence:

The diligent students worked on their assignment today.

Here, the noun phrase “the diligent students” is the subject, and “worked
on their assignment today” is the predicate.

It is helpful to think of a sentence as a series of slots.  Each
of the ten basic patterns begins with a noun phrase in the subject slot,
followed by one, two, or three slots in the predicate.  Below are
detailed descriptions and examples of each basic pattern described by Funk
and Kolln.

Patterns 1-3 (Be Patterns)

The first three patterns are the be patterns.  The number
of slots in the predicate is two.  The first slot contains the main,
or predicating verb, which is a form of be.  Some examples
of forms of be are is, am, are, was, were, being, and been

Expanded forms include have been, was being, might be, and will
be
.  What follows the main verb in the final slot determines which
pattern the sentence is.  In Pattern 1, an adverbial of time or place
follows the main verb.  In both Pattern 2 and Pattern 3, the predicating
verb is followed by a subject
complement
: a noun phrase or adjectival that renames or modifies the
subject.

An adjectival follows it in Pattern 2, and in Pattern 3 a noun phrase
follows the main verb.

* The numbers in parentheses in some of the patterns show the relationships
between noun phrases.  If the numbers are identical, the noun phrases
have the same referent (what the noun
phrase stands for).  Different numbers denote different referents.

 

1.    NP

      (subject) 

      The team
be

(predicating verb) 

is

ADV/TP

(adverbial of time or place) 

outside
2.   NP

      (subject) 

      The team

be

(predicating verb) 

is
ADJ

(subject complement) 

good

3.  NP(1)

       (subject) 

       That team
be

(predicating verb) 

is
NP(1)

(subject complement) 

the Raiders

Patterns 4 and 5 (Linking Verb Patterns)

Patterns 4 and 5 contain two slots in the predicate, just as in Patterns
1-3.  These patterns contain a linking verb followed by a subject
complement.  The difference between the two is the type of phrase
that fills the subject complement slot.  In Pattern 4, an adjectival
fills this slot.  In Pattern 5, a noun phrase fills the subject complement
slot; the noun phrase has the same referent as the first noun phrase.

Linking verbs that commonly appear in Pattern IV are verbs of the senses
such as taste, smell, feel, sound, and look.  Others
include

turn, appear, become, get, remain, and prove.  Some
of these verbs also are used in Pattern 5.

 

4.   NP

        (subject) 

        The child
linking verb

(predicating evrb) 

seems
ADJ

(subject complement) 

honest
5.    NP(1)

       (subject) 

       The children
linking verb

(predicating verb) 

became

NP(1)

(subject complement) 

foster kids

Pattern 6 (Intransitive Verb Pattern)

No complement follows the verb in this pattern; however, the verb may
be followed by adverbial information answering questions such as the following:
When? Where? Why? How? How long?

 

6.   NP

       (subject) 

       The club members
intransitive verb

(predicating verb) 

arrived

Patterns 7-10 (Transitive Verb Patterns)

The four transitive verb patterns have one thing in common: each contains
direct object–a noun phrase
that often refers to the object of a verb’s action.   Pattern
7 is considered the basic transitive pattern and contains only a direct
object following the verb.  Pattern 8 differs a little in that an
indirect object precedes the direct object.  We usually think of the indirect
object
as the recipient and the direct object as the thing given. 

One way to distinguish between Patterns 9 and 10 is to identify the object
complement
–the noun phrase or adjectival describing or renaming the
direct object.  In Pattern IX, the object complement that follows
the direct object is an adjective that modifies the direct object. 
The object complement in Pattern 10 is a noun phrase.  In this pattern,
the noun phrase has the same referent as the direct object.

 

7.   NP(1)

      (subject) 

      The woman

transitive verb

(predicating verb) 

passed
NP(2)

(direct object) 

the test
8.  NP(1)

     (subject) 

     The players
transitive verb

(predicating verb) 

gave

NP(2)

(indirect object) 

the other team
NP(3)

(direct object) 

the ball
9.     NP(1)

        (subject) 

        The members
transitive verb

(predicating verb) 

find

NP(2)

(direct object)

the club
ADJ

(object complement) 

interesting
10.     NP(1)

          (subject) 

          She
transitive verb

(predicating verb) 

considers

NP(2)

(direct object) 

her teacher
NP(2)

(object complement) 

a genius

归纳基本句型 English syntax

  • July 4, 2010 11:23 pm

归纳基本句型 English syntax

english basic patterns

  • July 4, 2010 11:13 pm

http://free-english-study.com/grammar/basic-sentence-structure.html

There are five basic patterns around which most English sentences are built.* They are
as follows:

S-V

Subject-Verb

John sleeps.

Jill is eating.

Jack will arrive next week.

S-V-O

Subject-Verb-Object

I like rice.

She loves her job.

He’s eating an orange.

S-V-Adj

Subject-Verb-Adjective

He is funny.

The workers are lazy.

Karen seems angry.

S-V-Adv

Subject-Verb-Adverb

Jim is here.

Flowers are everywhere.

No one was there.

S-V-N

Subject-Verb-Noun

She is my mom.

The men are doctors.

Mr. Jones is the teacher.